Manado is the capital of North Sulawesi Province with 410,000 inhabitants and total area of 15.3 Ha lays at the edge of northern part of Sulawesi Island consists of mainland and three main islands: Bunaken Island, Siladen Island and Manado Tua Island. Residential and commercial area are concentrated at the coastal area divided into 9 sub-districts and 87 villages.

As the largest city in northern Sulawesi, Manado is experiencing significant growth of motorization, 885 registered vehicle in 2012, almost doubled than 2009. Since the land use pattern is highly dense in coastal area, this part of the city suffers from congestion during morning and evening peak hours.

Problems and Challenge

Public transport

Mobility within the city is served by 10 seats angkot and taxi, while the connection with airport and other cities are done by bus. Another important transport mode is shipping that connects Manado and its main islands as well as other cities in surrounding regions to transport passenger and goods.

Angkot in Manado is vital to transport people within city area. High frequency and passenger volume were observed with total of 1,000 veh/hour and 3,360 passenger/hour per direction during peak hour (ITDP, 2013). Transit system was introduced through TransKawanua operation in 2010 as part of subsidy scheme from the Ministry of Transportation. However, due to lack of passenger and capacity in operation, TransKawanua is no longer in service. Nowadays, TransKawanua buses are handed over to DAMRI and the operation is shifted to airport service connecting Manado Airport to Manado, Bitung, Tomohon, Amurang, Kotamobagu.

Non motorized transport

Pedestrian in Manado is well connected to some extent. Most of the roads in the city have been furnished with pedestrian in both sides. However, the quality and accessories should be improved to provide convenient and safe walking facility.

Bike is not yet considered as important transportation mode. Therefore bike facility is hardly found throughout city. However, the city government has put effort to reintroduce the importance of non motorized transport by having car free day for government official every Friday and for public every Saturday located in Boulevard area.


On-street parking is widely used to accommodate parking demand in Manado. Only few off-street parking facility is available mainly in malls or shopping centres. Low price, unregulated and insufficient capacity to manage parking has caused serious problem for Manado: congestion, reduced travel speed and chaotic road space. Managing parking is urgently required to tackle down the decreasing road level of service.