Climate Change and Transport
Greenhouse gases trap heat and make the planet warmer. Human activities are responsible for almost all of the increase in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere over the last 150 years . Transport is one of the sectors targeted where effective public interventions are being called for to reduce CO2 emissions and where adaptation measures are needed to reduce the vulnerability to climatic changes. Currently, the CO2 emissions in the transport sector are about 30% in the case of developed countries and about 23% in the case of the total man-made CO2 emissions worldwide. There is widespread agreement to reduce CO2 emissions from transport by a minimum of 50% at the latest by 2050 . The transport sector in Indonesia emitted 68 MtCO2-eq in 2005, or 23% of all energy-related emissions, with road transport consuming 91% of primary energy. Over the next 25 years, vehicle ownership is projected to more than double, with the growth expected to be largest in two wheelers and light duty vehicles. Mobility is essential for economic and social well-being, but would come at the cost of increased congestion, air pollution, accidents, noise, vibration and higher fossil fuel dependence if business as usual trends are not altered .
At the G-20 Summit Meeting in Pittsburgh in 2009 Indonesia announced its commitment to reduce national emissions by 26% by 2020 from “business as usual baseline” levels as voluntary mitigation actions, and with international support, Indonesia will further reduce national emissions up to 41%. Through the National Action Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emission (RAN-GRK), the energy and transport sector has committed to reduce up to 56 MtCO2-eq/yr in 2020 from business as usual levels. The main urban transport measures listed in the RAN-GRK indicate an emission reduction potential of approximately 4.7 MtCO2-eq in 2020.
The significance of sustainable urban transport is also addressed in the Indonesia Climate Change Sectoral Roadmap, 2010 (ICCSR). The ICCSR suggested that a national urban transport policy is required to encourage the development of comprehensive urban mobility and attract investment in infrastructure for non-motorised transport (NMT). The urban transport agenda in Indonesia includes a large number of urban transport policies, covering avoid, shift and improve strategies which requires an umbrella to coordinate and serve as a framework for measurement and reporting. “Sustainable Urban Transport Indonesia” (SUTRI) NAMA will play an important role.
One of success indicators of SUTRI NAMA is direct emission reductions amounted to up to 0.7 – 1.8 MtCO2 per year in 2030 through reduce fuel consumption per inhabitant in five pilot cities. The Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) concept will be built on scenarios that assess impacts of demonstration projects on city level in pilot cities (direct scenarios) as well as the impact of up-scaling to further urban areas (indirect scenarios). The MRV will include MRV of emission reduction (GHG impact), MRV of co-benefits (non-GHG impact), MRV on implementation (progress indicators) and MRV of support.